The state of the social sciences

The social sciences emerging from the 18th century with the classic “Wealth of Nations” by Adam Smith, 1776 aimed at theorizing the interface of human behavior with economic interests and the growing trade between nations. The post-industrial revolution of 1760 and the maturation of 1840 changed the outlook not only for North American and European societies, but also changed perceptions of societies around the world.

Societies, over time and space, have undergone a noticeable shift in class perceptions, values, behavior and interests, thus paving the way for social scientists to study new relationships in new ones. phenomena. Some branches of the social sciences, for example economics, known as the king of social sciences, examined the theories that reigned until the Great Depression of the 1930s, when classical theories of economics completely and miserably went downhill. the survival of the “laissez faire” rule failed. and crippled the world’s economies.

The New Economy is based on the establishment of new relationships in a given phenomenon in societies, creating new knowledge about new relationships of human actions in the face of societies and social groups, embodying rigorous scientific methodologies based on precision,

finally institutionalize the world economic order, currently in place, dictated by the IBRD and the IMF. Among social science disciplines, economics has relied heavily on sophisticated tools and techniques drawn from mathematics and physics to ensure the accuracy of testing theories against observed body data in order to establish new relationships. phenomena, thus increasing the theoretical foundations of knowledge likely to confront the observed observations. data to restore, reject or modify the existing theory. Therefore, he widely used differential equations, tensor calculus, mathematical logic, linear and dynamic programming, etc. many developing countries of the world. Today the subject has become a parent discipline within and outside the social sciences, for example, management, sociology, health economics, engineering economics, geography and regional development. , etc. comes to the degree of service. The reception capacity of the Delhi School of Economics at the University of Delhi today is mainly filled by applicants whose parent discipline is physics or mathematics at the expense of bona fide economics.

Social scientists have put more or less effort into observing data and studying the relationships in a given phenomenon rather than using curious minds for the inductive foundations of a phenomenon, developing a theory, or theorizing a problem. Among the social sciences, sociology, an important discipline of the social sciences, is primarily interested in the study of the relationships determining social behavior and assumes that behavior in turn is influenced by social, political, professional, intellectual and social groupings. by the particular setting in which they are found. themselves at one point or another. It owes its roots to Emile Durkheim of the University of Bordeaux, George Herbert Meade and Max Weber in 19e century to lay the foundations of the discipline and in the contemporary world sociologists make fragile attempts to quantify social relations in human societies using sociometry, etc. anthropology and cultural anthropology. Likewise, geography is concerned with studying the various environments of places, the spatial interactions of the Earth’s surface, ultimately human interactions in the natural environment, thus expanding the scope of Ptolemy of the second century who limited geography to a study of the representation of the phenomena of the known world in images only. In 20e deductive inferences of the century with regard to phenomena, the discipline of social sciences has tested theories against observations, using sociometry, psychometry and statistical techniques, therefore, cannot be considered a pleonasm and even them Writing and writing techniques and methods are an integral part of the standard scientific methodology being used in social science research. It should be borne in mind that the post-war economy, using advanced methods and techniques of physics, mathematics and engineering, ignoring the fact that it deals with the human mind and human behavior has become a vulgar economy. The accuracy of the physical sciences or the life sciences, based on laboratory research under controlled conditions, cannot be ipso facto applicable to macro or micro social relationships, variable, in the social sciences to be a science of society human in which social groups stratified as a social laboratory to investigate and research is not under conditions of control.

Contemporary scientific investigations dominated by interdisciplinary research in multidisciplinary institutions around the world, on the one hand, and the horizontal expansion of disciplines in academic institutions, on the other hand, have to a large extent narrowed the gap between science and the social sciences precisely for the decimation of scientific knowledge for the public good and humanity, hence the conceptualization of the hierarchical order of the material sciences, social sciences, technological sciences is still to be considered. The Nobel Prize won for peace and literature in the world by women exceeds 26%, a significant proportion, while for medicine, chemistry, physics and economics, more than 8% reflects the presence of gender in the research.

In the global gender participation scenario, or looking at the index of women’s participation, in the US technology and R&D sector alone, 47 percent are women and globally 25 percent of national parliamentarians are women and just under 50 percent of working-age women are in the labor force, a sustained figure over the period. Global tech giants Amazon, Apple, Face Book, Google and Microsoft have 34.4% women in their workforce and there are 14 countries in the world with 50% women in the firm. The weakening of the role of women in universities and decision-making processes demonstrates ignorance especially in the post-war period.

Social sciences in developing societies

Social science in developing societies has yet to make a dent in research, the level of physical science and technology probably economics could be an exception. When I was at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics in the mid-1980s, there were 56 departments in one discipline, economics at what is now called the University of Economics of Budapest. Developing societies initiated the interdisciplinary approach to multidisciplinary research very late and in the era of post-globalization, these developing countries, unlike China, have shown more inhibitions to evolve with the wind and the time in academic reforms, thus infusing more technology – loopholes, a pressing problem in developing economies facing today. Research in our institutions continues to be stereotyped, even research in the natural sciences is sometimes hampered by the insufficiency of modern scientific equipment available in laboratories. Standard scientific methodology, as a critical scientific inquiry, used in social science research integrates, as a prelude, the fundamentals – concept, variables, hypothesis, measurement / quantification and theories, axioms, principles and laws. Researchers, during the review of studies on the subject, must identify the knowledge gaps that the discipline they intend to fill to add to the stock of knowledge, would develop social science analytics. The unfortunate digital technology misplaced in the hands of some, the use of “copy and paste” and “investigator methodology instead of acquiring knowledge on the subject remains ignorant on the subject. Cut-and-paste and download technologies are having a negative impact on the growth of the social sciences. The concept of extensive and intensive reading has been lacking in our institutions and even perceptions about it. Today we join academic research precisely for the reason of the zero opportunity cost as human capital, the losses, devoid of the degree of utility as a human resource, realize their added value nor motivated by the market nor by demand, therefore, only add to the stock of human resources with zero opportunity cost. This is why we feel we belong to a secondary discipline. The integration of technological inputs with standard scientific methodology tends to optimal solutions for the social and economic problems being the subject of the social sciences.

Professor Nisar Ali, Former, Director and Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences and Member, State Finance Commission, J&K Government.

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